Mohamed Osman Khatir
The concept of morphology generally refers to the study of form or forms of something, this can be found in three different fields which are biology, geology and linguistics. According to Francis Katamba (1993) in his book English morphology the term has been borrowed from biological contexts by students of linguistics. Its origin is Greek which means ‘shape or form’ and–ology means the study of something. Aronoff and Fudeman( 2011,p.2) stated that it is first coined or invented by the German poet, playwright, novelist and philosopher Johann wolfang Von Goethe(1749-1832) in early nineteenth century in biological contexts. Now it is being used in these three fields, In biology it refers to the study of the structure and organisms of living things, in geology it refers the study of the Earth configuration and land evolution and in linguistics, which is the scientific study of a language, morphology refers to the study of word formation, their internal structure and their relations in the same language, or the branch of linguistics that deals with the study of word formation and how words are put together to make different forms. The term morphology also defined in www.Coursehero.com “The study of structure of words and how words are formed.”According to Aronoff and Fudeman (2011,p.1) “The branch of linguistics that deals with word formation, internal structure and their relations in the same language.”
If you look at every single word, it is not free of morphology. The study of word formation is like building a high rise building, which needs a good grounding in order to stand on it. In fact, it is the same for any linguist or language learner, they have to think about a good grounding for their knowledge, which is morphology. Word formation has to do with all branches of linguistics. It is a major level of linguistic analysis and plays an important role in producing and building thousands of new words with different forms, meanings and structure. On the other hand English derives a huge number of words from the major languages of the world which are used on daily basis and morphology gives us an idea about the source of the words with rules and regulations on how to form new words. Studying any of the branches of linguistics is part of studying morphology For example, studying the sound system which is phonology, studying how words are produced which is phonetics or rules of words which is grammar, because all of these can be done according to the different forms a word can have or lexemes which are morphological processes. Studying English is not simply reading words and sentences, but it is really how words are formed in a language and it is a must because, it breaks down words into parts.
Since morphology is the study of language and language is made up of words and words are made up of morphemes these terms should be outlined in details.
Language has been defined as ‘A method of human communication by using spoken or written words.’
Oxford Advanced Lerner’s Dictionary defines it as (The system of communication in speech and writing that’s used by people of a particular country or area.”
1-1The origins of language
Many argues and points of views have been said about the origins of language, the main point is the (divine source) which the God’s gift to the mankind. The linguist George Yule has argued his famous book – The Study of Language- “ The basic idea of the theory is that, if infants were allowed to grow up without hearing any language, then they would spontaneously begin using the original God-given language.”
www.Wikitionary online dictionary “A body of words, and sets of methods of combining them (called a grammar), understood by a community and used as a form of communication.”
1.2 The importance of language:
Language is at the heart of human life, without it most of our daily activities are inconceivable, there are so many things we want to tell the world, some of them are important and some are not, but anyway we talk. A life without words is really horrendous privation. It will not take a long time to stop for a while and think about how important is a language, think about what is going on now around you or even around the world, think about commercial deals, doctor- patient interactions, newspapers, what is written or being written now or what has taught or being taught now at schools universities etc..
There are a number of the interpersonal functions for a language, this refers to the grammatical choices that enable speakers to enact in their complex and diverse relations, for example:
a- informative function: language serves as an informative function when it used to tell what the speaker believes, to give information about facts or to reason things out. This can be done by declarative sentences. i.e. not interrogative sentences.
b- Interrogative function: when language is used to get information from others, it serves an interrogative function..
c- Directive function: when language is used to get the hearer do something, then it serves as directive function.
d- Emotive function: when language is used to create certain feelings in the hearer.
e- Directive function: when language is used to get the hearer do something, it serves as directive function. As in the most imperative sentences. Language is really a vast subject.
1.4 Spoken and written language
1.4.1 Spoken language or sometimes called ‘oral language’ is language produced in its spontaneous form and is being used as opposed to a written language Spoken language is a major method of communication for people. Many languages have no written form, and so are only spoken. It’s been said in Study.com an online website “Spoken language contains many interesting features that are unique to this form of discourse that allow to convey meaning that goes words.”
1.4.2 A written language is defined as ‘The representation of a spoken gestural language by means of a writing system.’ It is any communication involves any type of message that makes use of the written word and it is the most important and effective of any mode of business communication. Writing is a medium of human communication that represents language and emotion with signs and symbols. It is the invention the must be taught to the children or true beginners of a language. Some people say, writing is not a language, but a tool used to make languages be read.
Everyone has an idea about what the word is. But if you ask them to define it, many of them should be surprised or puzzled! It word has been defined as in Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary “As a single unit of language which means something and be written or spoken.”-so you could say to somebody whom you want to stop talking, (don’t say a word), or you could say to them ( please, could write a word here).
2.1 types of words
There are two types of words in English, open class words and 2.1.1closed class words.
Open class words are nouns, full verb (not auxiliary verbs), adverbs and adjectives in other words they remain open to additions, large in number and extended. Words in open category usually divided into simple and complex. Simple words are words that have just one morpheme (house, sit, slow or green), whereas complex words contain more than (houses, sitting, slowly and greenest)
2.1.2Closed class words
On the other hand closed words refer to the category of function words which are belonging to the grammatical classes (parts of speech) and they are pronouns, determiners, conjunctions and prepositions.for example, ( they, the, a, this, these, at and in), or consider the following noun phrase. The man and the woman. Words of this category don’t accept prefixes or affixes. These words are limit in number contrasting to open class words.