Health: Sudan Free of Yellow Fever Epidemic    

Haffiya Elyas

Federal Ministry of Health announced yesterday the completion of the preparations to conduct the vaccination campaign  against yellow fever, which is  targeted  the age groups of 9 months to 60 years in March 10th 2019.The Ministry revealed that   that these target groups are the most  likely to be infected with the disease.
The campaign is targeting more than 3 million people in Blue Nile and Sinnar states as a third stage, adding that the campaign comes to follow-up to the first two phases in 2014 and the second in 2015. The campaign will be carried out in Gezira State in April, thus remaining 3 states (Khartoum, Nile River and North States ) to supplement the vaccination of all target populations in preparation for the introduction of the vaccine with routine vaccination for children under the age of one year
Samira Mohamed Osman ,Expanded Programme on Immunization stressed that Sudan is free of yellow fever ,saying  all preparations and training of health cadres is completed , noting the provision of 80% of equipment and dispatch to the targeted States, pointing out that Sudan falls within the belt of yellow fever. The launch of the campaign will attributed to the Blue Nile states and to the open movement between the States of South Sudan and Ethiopia, noting that there is  plans for the special and border areas under the control of the Government, indicating that there are areas locked in Blue Nile working with the government and humanitarian aid to reach it by Special teams to be coordinated with global health and UNICEF.
“This campaign is aimed to protect the  citizens,” said Dr. Laila Hamad Al-Nil, Director of the Health Promotion Department at the Federal Ministry of Health , noting that the latest epidemic was in 2015.The campaign  is expected to reach 75% of the Sudanese people to vaccinate against yellow fever
Shakir Yahya,  UNICEF’s Communication section, affirmed  UNICEF commitment to raise awareness of the campaign through  contacting citizens, stressing to provide 10,000 doses funded by UNICEF to Sudan, stressing the readiness of the teams to work in Sennar and Blue Nile States .
The disease is caused by yellow fever virus and is spread by the bite of an infected female mosquito. It infects only humans, other primates, and several species of mosquitoes. In cities, it is spread primarily by Aedes aegypti, a type of mosquito found throughout the tropics and subtropics. The virus is an RNA virus of the genus Flavivirus.The disease may be difficult to tell apart from other illnesses, especially in the early stages. To confirm a suspected case, blood sample testing with polymerase chain reaction is required.
A safe and effective vaccine against yellow fever exists, and some countries require vaccinations for travelers. Other efforts to prevent infection include reducing the population of the transmitting mosquito. In areas where yellow fever is common and vaccination is uncommon, early diagnosis of cases and immunization of large parts of the population are important to prevent outbreaks. Once infected, management is symptomatic with no specific measures effective against the virus. Death occurs in up to half of those who get severe disease.
In 2013, yellow fever resulted in about 127,000 severe infections and 45,000 deaths, with nearly 90% of these occurring in African nations. Nearly a billion people live in an area of the world where the disease is common. It is common in tropical areas of the continents of South America and Africa, but not in Asia. Since the 1980s, the number of cases of yellow fever has been increasing.

This is believed to be due to fewer people being immune, more people living in cities, people moving frequently, and changing climate increasing the habitat for mosquitoes. The disease originated in Africa, from where it spread to South America through the slave trade in the 17th century. Since the 17th century, several major outbreaks of the disease have occurred in the Americas, Africa, and Europe. In the 18th and 19th centuries, yellow fever was seen as one of the most dangerous infectious diseases in 1927 yellow fever virus became the first human virus to be isolated
*The Risk of International Spread.
The global health community is facing an increased risk of urban outbreaks of yellow fever (YF). The risk of international spread, YF’s changing epidemiology and resurgence of mosquitoes pose an emerging global threat that requires new strategic thinking.
This document describes the reasoning behind and need for an updated, long-term  (2017-2026) and global strategy to “Eliminate Yellow fever Epidemics” (EYE).
The strategy includes three strategic objectives: (1) protect at-risk populations, (2) prevent international spread and (3) contain outbreaks rapidly. The document is intended to be used at national, regional and global level by partners, donors, public health officers, national health authorities, and technical or non-technical experts seeking an overview of the EYE strategy.
The EYE strategy is comprehensive, multi-component and multi-partner. In addition to recommending vaccination activities, it calls for building resilient urban centres, planning for urban readiness, and strengthening the application of the International Health Regulations (2005) (IHR).
The EYE strategy is an unprecedented initiative as it brings together multiple partners willing to support countries to achieve a common goal of making the world safer.
The classification of countries’ risk was revised to account for criteria associated with the changing epidemiology of the disease such as environmental factors, population density and vector prevalence. A total of 40 countries (27 countries in Africa and 13 countries in the Americas) are considered to be at highest risk for YF.
In these countries, large scale access to yellow fever vaccines is critical to establish and maintain high levels of immunity among adult and childhood populations. In Africa, 5 countries still need to introduce the vaccine into their routine immunization schedules and 12 countries should complete national mass preventive campaigns.
All countries at risk for YF in the Americas have  introduced the vaccine into routine vaccination programmes, but 11 of them should plan  catch-up campaigns targeting unprotected pockets of their population.

A safe and Effective Vaccine

The disease is caused by yellow fever virus and is spread by the bite of an infected female mosquito. It infects only humans, other primates, and several species of mosquitoes. In cities, it is spread primarily by Aedes aegypti, a type of mosquito found throughout the tropics and subtropics.The virus is an RNA virus of the genus Flavivirus. The disease may be difficult to tell apart from other illnesses, especially in the early stages. To confirm a suspected case, blood sample testing with polymerase chain reaction is required.
A safe and effective vaccine against yellow fever exists, and some countries require vaccinations for travelers. Other efforts to prevent infection include reducing the population of the transmitting mosquito. In areas where yellow fever is common and vaccination is uncommon, early diagnosis of cases and immunization of large parts of the population are important to prevent outbreaks. Once infected, management is symptomatic with no specific measures effective against the virus. Death occurs in up to half of those who get severe disease.
In 2013, yellow fever resulted in about 127,000 severe infections and 45,000 deaths, with nearly 90% of these occurring in African nations. Nearly a billion people live in an area of the world where the disease is common. It is common in tropical areas of the continents of South America and Africa, but not in Asia. Since the 1980s, the number of cases of yellow fever has been increasing.
This is believed to be due to fewer people being immune, more people living in cities, people moving frequently, and changing climate increasing the habitat for mosquitoes. The disease originated in Africa, from where it spread to South America through the slave trade in the 17th century. Since the 17th century, several major outbreaks of the disease have occurred in the Americas, Africa, and Europe. In the 18th and 19th centuries, yellow fever was seen as one of the most dangerous infectious disease In 1927 yellow fever virus became the first human virus to be isolated.

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