Declan Walsh and Joseph Goldstein
Omar Hassan al-Bashir, the authoritarian president, has been ousted after nearly four months of mass protests. But demonstrators are wary about what will happen now that the military has said it was taking control.
As Sudan’s military announced at lunchtime on Thursday that it had finally unseated President Omar Hassan al-Bashir, a brief burst of joy exploded outside the military headquarters in Khartoum where huge throngs of protesters had massed.
Nearly four months of protest, dozens of deaths at the hands of the security forces and endless chants of “revolution!” had finally come to this: the ouster of the despised leader who had ruled their vast country, plagued by famine and war, for 30 years.
But the euphoria quickly soured when the protesters realized who had replaced Mr. al-Bashir.
The somber man reading the speech on television was Lt. Gen. Awad Mohamed Ahmed Ibn Auf, the defense minister and a confidant of Mr. al-Bashir. General Ibn Auf, like Mr. al-Bashir, had been accused of perpetrating war crimes in Sudan’s western region of Darfur.
The protesters fell silent as he laid out his terms: the release of political prisoners, but also a two-year transition steered by a military council, the suspension of Sudan’s Constitution, the dissolution of government and curfews starting at 10 p.m. that night. Loud groans and lamentations rippled through the crowd, followed by a current of anger.
New cries rang out. “We do not replace a thief with a thief,” some chanted.
“We don’t want the same guy!” shouted others. Within hours, another taunt at the regime was circulating online: “It fell once, it can fall again!”
Protesters were caught between their jubilation at the ouster of Mr. al-Bashir, a ruthless leader who promised greatness but ultimately brought war, international isolation and economic ruin, and their abiding anxiety over what will follow him.
“What has been just stated is for us a coup, and it is not acceptable,” said Sara Abdelgalil, a spokeswoman for the Sudanese Professionals Association, which has been organizing the protests. “They are recycling the faces, and this will return us to where we have been.”
Mr. al-Bashir at Parliament this month. He has ruled Sudan longer than any leader since the country gained independence in 1956.CreditMohamed Nureldin Abdallah/Reuters
Even by the standards of the world’s autocrats, Mr. al-Bashir, 75, had a low reputation. He was the only active leader of a nation to be wanted by the International Criminal Court, which accused him of playing “an essential role” in a genocidal purge in Darfur by overseeing the forces that killed, raped and terrorized hundreds of thousands of civilians.
Mr. al-Bashir ruled Sudan longer than any other leader since the country gained independence in 1956, and was seen as a pariah in much of the world. In the 1990s, he hosted Osama bin Laden, inviting American sanctions, and in 1998 an American cruise missile struck a factory in Khartoum for its alleged links to Al Qaeda.
He presided over a ruinous 21-year war in southern Sudan, where his forces pushed barrel bombs from planes onto remote villages. The country ultimately divided in 2011, when South Sudan gained independence. But Mr. al-Bashir kept fighting brutal conflicts with rebels in other parts of Sudan.
In addition, he sent thousands of Sudanese soldiers to fight outside the country, including in the civil war in Yemen, and it is not clear whether a successor will call them home.
The protesters who ousted Mr. al-Bashir on Thursday were driven, principally, by his domestic failures. Demonstrations in December over the soaring price of bread evolved into a countrywide street movement that harnessed the frustrations of many young Sudanese.
Those protests, largely ignored by the world for months, captured global attention this week. A striking photo of one protester standing on a car and wearing a white thoub — a long robe — and gold earrings as she urged on a crowd was widely shared online and called an iconic image of the demonstrations.
And the open dismay that greeted Mr. al-Bashir’s successor — another military man, cut from essentially the same cloth — suggested the protesters had learned lessons from the failures of the Arab Spring in 2011 in Egypt, Libya and Yemen.