Raga Mohamed Elzaki Ali, Shamseldin Hassaballa Ahmed, Azharia Abdelbaghi Elbushra, Hashim Ahmaed Elobied
In Sudan given climate is nearly extremes and food insecurity in most regions of the country, the food availability is a crucial component of household food security status. Camel production play an important role in the livelihood of people in dry and semi dry zones, however camel pastoralist challenged by serious production constraints e.g. the lack of marketing facilities, improper infrastructure, impact of liberalization policy on prices and civil war. The general objective of this study was to assess the role of camel production on food security in the Butana State in weastern Sudan. Precisely the objectives aim to identify the main factors that may be responsible for food insecurity among camel pastoralist. The study is heavily depending on primary data collected during the season 2013/2014. Statistical tools of data analysis are implemented focusing on descriptive, food security status and logistic binary regression methods. The study results are showed that most of the surveyed camel pastoralists are illiterate and landless. The study reveals that lowe percentages of sampled households in the study area are faced to food security. According to the results, the camels production are significantly improves food security. There are positive correlation between education level, food availability and food access. Moreover, food utilization is significant affected by family size and number of males in the households. In addition, it is substantial affected by milk production and camel selling in the region. The major constraints of the camel production were the camel diseases such as trypanosomiasis and mastitis. The food insecurity reducing by the age of the household-headed.
Sudan has nearly three million camels, the second-largest national herd in the world, after Somalia’s (1). Tribal groups in Sudan breed distinctive types of camels (Mason and Maule, 1960), the well-known among these are the Anafi and Bishareen. Camels are the backbone of the Rashaida pastoralists’ economy and are also central part of their culture. Cash is received at town markets for male camels sold for slaughter at the age of six to seven years. They are collected at regular intervals from the large herds and driven to the meat markets in Egypt. The live camel trade is gradually increasing in number with most going on hoof to Egypt and Libya. The greater part of Sudan’s trade with Egypt used to be in camel trade, which has been for years conducted by a number of Sudanese traders. The camel has played a conspicuous and extremely significant role in the development of Sudanese communities whose natural environment has allowed of it chance for adaptation (Mohamed and Ahmed, 1991).
The camel farming is mainly traditional based on the mobility of the herd. The camel belt in Sudan includes the states of North and South-Darfur, North and South-Kordofan, Khartoum, Gezira, Kassala, Red Sea, River-Nile, Northern Sudan, White Nile, Blue Nile and Sennar State (Faye et al., 2011). The Butana plains, where this study was conducted, occupy the area lying between the River Nile in the West and the Atbara River in the east. In Butana area of Sudan camels are commonly raised under nomadic conditions in a geographical zone which lies approximately between latitude 14-16 N and longitude 33-36 E (Al-Amin, 1979). The total area is about 120 000 km2. The Butan plains are inhabited by transhumant camel owning Sudanese tribes such as the Shukriya, Lahawiyin, Kawahla and Rashaida.
2. Problem Related Factors and Justifications
Camels play an important role in the livelihood of people in dry and semi dry zones, yet camel producers faced by serious production constraints. These constraints include lack of feeds, disease prevalence, water shortage (Ishag and Ahmed, 2011), lack of marketing facilities, improper infrastructure, impact of liberalization policy on prices and civil war.
Actually, the livestock living conditions were so poor particularly at the beginning of the rainy season due to limited availability of pasture. Pastoralists predominantly for livestock production traditionally have been classified as a separate farming system, even though they are integrated with other farming systems, particularly with traditional rain-fed farming. In Sudan, camel traders pay taxes and transit fees in more than 21 places in route to the terminal markets or final destinations. As well, most previous research conducted on camels was oriented towards diseases and infections, reproductive physiology and characterization.
3. Objectives of the Study
The general objective of this study was to assess the role of camel production on food security in the Butana State. The specific objectives of this study are to:
1. Determine the socio-economics factors of the camel producers in the region.
2. Estimate the food security status in the regions.
3. Identify the camel circumstances and constraints of the camel pastoralists in Butan areas.
4. Identify the main factors that may be responsible for food insecurity among camel pastoralists.
4. Study Approach and Methods
Surveys regarding household status are vital for the analysis of welfare allocation and household characteristics. At the same time, aggregate household-level analysis can provide only limited understanding of the intra-household distribution of resources, especially of income and consumption. This study attempts to select the regions, where the camels is concentrated, central and western regions, since these regions are most vulnerable and wealthy in camels. The study is heavily relied on the primarily data collected from the pastoralist from Butan areas, where the Butan area is located in the border between central and western Sudan. The Tambul city was selected as study area. Data employed in this study is collect by using structural questionnaire from the camels producers carried out during the reference period 2013-2014. This survey is based on the sampling method which allows for the generalization of the results to the whole population of households within a margin of an error. The number of households are participating in the survey was 104 participants. In this study household-headed is taken into account. In those households exclusive or main source of maintenance is income from family farms in livestock. The survey questionnaire covered issues on various aspects of household food security. The filed survey was designed to collected data on demographic and socio-economic attributes of the households and on consumption of various food items on weekly basis. Further the information on various aspects of household food security were collected. In-depth interview and focused group discussions were held with the subjects such as camel’s information (e.g. compositions, prices, production and consumption pattern as well as marketing and camels diseases and infrastructures aspects). Further information on income, total expenditure and calorie consumption were collected. Additionally supported secondary data was collected.
Statistical methods of data analysis are implemented focusing on descriptive, food security status and binary regression methods.
Food security status of the camels was measured by calculating their per capita calorie intakes using 7 days recall method for food consumption information. A household with per capita calorie intake equivalent to or above 2, 300 Kcal/capita/day was considered as food secure household determined by WHO, 2003. Mathematically, the food security status of a household can be written as: