Estimation of Competitiveness of Sudanese Mango Fruits

Suad El Hag Ahmed

Sudan was considered as one of large countries in Africa, occupying a territory of 1.882.000 million square kilometers. The geographical diversity of Sudan has had a direct impact upon economic, social, political, and cultural life with its multi various ethnic and cultural composition. The culture of Sudan is regarded as the oldest in SubSaharan Africa. Sudan has had contacts with Middle East and Mediterranean civilizations since ancient times. The western parts have many contacts with West Africa, and the eastern parts have maintained close links with the countries of the Indian Ocean. Sudan is very rich in natural resources, a fact that has inevitably made the country base its economy on agricultural and animal production. Consequently, agriculture is considered the backbone of the economy in the country. However, agricultural production varies from year to year because of intermittent droughts that cause widespread famine. The society is conditioned by anthropological and climatic factors, as well as the nature of the land, but agriculture is the foundation of the social structure (Eltoum, 2009). Although there is great potential in the field of agriculture, development and reaping maximum benefit from this sector needs more effort to move the engine of production forward towards improvement and progress. The leading export crops are cotton, sesame, and peanuts. Other agricultural products include sorghum, millet, wheat, dates, sugarcane, fruits and vegetables. Sheep, cattle, goats, and camels are raised. A variety of forest products are produced, by far the most important being gum Arabic, with Sudan accounting for much of the total world production (Abusabib, 2004). 1.2 The Importance of Horticultural Crops (Fruits and Vegetables): The horticultural acreage in the Sudan is estimated about 0.65 million feddans, representing about 3% of the total cropped area, but with high contribution (12%) to national agricultural production compared to 21% for food grains and 8% for oil seeds. The production of both vegetables and fruits is flourishing, providing cash for farmers, forming an important component of the human diet and holding good promise for export (ARC, 2012). Sudan exports large amount of fruits and vegetables during the period (2000-2010), the most important of them: mango, lemon, melon and spices as shown in Table
In Sudan, mango is an important horticultural crop. It has economic importance being produced almost all of the year in different parts of the country. It also has a regional and international demand in markets, being a beloved fruit with great nutritive value and delicious taste. There are new chances for whole markets abroad. The mango cultivated area in Sudan was estimated to be about 2,814,000 ha in 2004. About 57 cultivars are reported to exist in Sudan. They are categorized into three groups: True Indian cultivars, Egyptian seedling cultivars of Indian origin such as Zibda, Alphons, Malgoba and Hindibesinara, and Sudanese seedling cultivars of Indian origin of high quality including Shendi, Taimoor, Nailm, Mabroka, Debsha and the famous sort Abu Samaka. And newly introduced varieties are Heden, Kent, Sensation, Sabrin (FAO, 1996). The main area of mango production in Sudan extends along the main Nile banks in Northern and River Nile States. It is also grown on a small scale along the Blue Nile banks in central Sudan, and in some parts of South Kordofan and in Darfur States where the other cultivated species of mango is found (UNEP, 2005, pp 16-17). The success of mangoes production in Sudan could be attributed to the possibility of extending its fruiting season eleven months a year from November to September (El-Mardi and El-Awad, 1984). The average areas and production of mango in Sudan from 1995 to 1997 was 39440 hectares and 928670 tons, respectively. West Darfur State produced about 53% from the total production, South Kordofan State about 27%, Northern States 3% and Khartoum State 2% (Abdel Kareem et al, 1996). Production of mango in the Sudan has recently expanded tremendously because of the recently opened channels to European and Arab markets. Moreover, farmers shifted toward fruit trees rather than vegetable production because of the energy crises (Mohamed, 199

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