Khartoum – Because of deep awareness of the value of education as the crucial factor to contribute progressively in the advancement of peoples and nations and in all domains, especially economically, many Sudan’s successive governments have done a good nice job in the area. By now, it is quite normal to find in each village, let alone the cities and towns, at least one basic school as well as a secondary one.
Concerning the higher education, it is noticeably and tremendously; from only five or six universities in the 1980s, to more than 50 as the situation presently- in each of Sudan’s 18 states at least one or two universities/ higher institutions are established.
Until recently and because of the belief in the importance of education, the holders of the university certificates, no matter their backgrounds are, economic and none, each family in Khartoum hopefully desires that they are to be the husbands of their daughters.
The Sudanese songs function as the best platform to express the situation. They dignify the educated persons like this; ‘You who are travelling to France, on your journey back home, please do not forget to bring me a bridegroom, on condition that they have been associating/ relating to the teaching staff’.
Further, and before things are to get complicated, especially economically, and as manifested by the situation now, the Sudanese outlook to the government’s educated employees as the very rich segment of the population. One of them describes the situation dramatically like this; ‘as the majority of people, especially in the rural areas, used to wake up early in the morning in preparation for work at the fields, the educated persons -or the Afanedya do not; they just continue to sleep uninterrupted till the sun rises and even for along time after’.
Of course, this situation is not without justification; simply speaking because the Afanedya are perceived as occupying top ranks, especially educationally and economically’.
Sudan aside, what about the outlook globally? Do they have the same conviction over the issue or are they different? Below are various answers. To begin with, there is Jonathan Rothwell ( 2013) who argues that it is clear that the sacrifices made by millions of taxpayers, parents, and individuals to invest in the education of others or themselves are economically worthwhile, explaining that it is indisputable that workers with more education typically earn significantly higher wages and are far more likely to get employed than workers who have no education. ‘For example, the latest figures from the Bureau of Labor Statistics show that workers with only a high school education are twice as likely to be unemployed as those with at least a bachelor’s degree’, adding that this is an evidence to prove that education has an important causal effect on earnings for all groups of people.
Bihong Huang, Peter J. Morgan, and Naoyuki Yoshino (2019) indicate that there is no surprise that macroeconomic research finds very large gains from education on economic growth at both the regional and international levels.
Harvard’s Ed Glaeser and many others has shown that there is a strong evidence that economic growth has been accompanied by growth in both spending and participation in schooling, pointing out that US is a global leader in education, with largest supply of highly qualified people in its adult labor force of any country in the world.
They affirm that as US population nearly doubled between 1950 and 2000, the labor force has also grown; from 62 million in 1950 to 149 million in 2005.
‘This tremendous stock of highly educated human capital helps the United States to become the dominant economy in the world and to take advantage of the globalization and expansion of markets’, disclosing that 18 of the top 20 universities in the world are in America.
However, China has been noticed as excelling vigorously in this area; it will be graduating a higher proportion of students from high school within a decade-it is going to have 200 million of students
in elementary and secondary education, compared with 66 million in the US.
Other countries share China the same trend. For instance, each additional year of schooling appears to raise earnings by about 10 percent in the United States.
Moreover, China expanded the number of students in higher education from 6 million in 1998 to 31 million in 2010, going from almost 10 percent to about 24 percent- many of these students are studying science and engineering.
Besides China, there is South Korea which enjoys the highest secondary school graduation rate in the world- with 93 percent of the secondary school population obtaining a high school diploma, compared with 77% in the United States.
Mac Margolis (2004) says that the educated persons of any country, even if they are to leave it to work abroad, are to bring in a lot of fortune to their respective homelands, especially economically. ‘While they are abroad they are genuine forces of change when returning back home through bringing fresh air into local activities. And because of this, they desire that its educated persons will all the time going out massively, since such a thing is much associated with all kind of goodness, especially economically’.
Likewise, some nations, such as the Philippine, has been noticed as relying heavily on the human resources, especially the educated ones, by just availing them the chance to work abroad. One Pilipino explains this like this;’ when we as the Pilipinos, especially the educated ones, arrive home from abroad, our government considers us as the genuine heroes- as the very important persons-a situation that is manifested through just allowing us to walk on the red carpet, since we practically pump in hard currencies that are badly needed by the national treasury’.
So, and through the method of education, some countries, such as Malaysia, succeed to become the most progressive ones globally, especially economically. ‘The Malaysia’s current prime minister, Mahathir Mohamed, spends generously on education, to the extent that 20% of the national budget has been earmarked for the purpose. Due to this, the outcome is much fruitful and rewarding-Malaysia and by the international standards, has become the very developed nation’.