New In Libraries …Common Diseases, Enter to the World of Medicines (2)

Dina Omer Khalid

This book about common diseases currently in our society prepared by Dina Omer Khalid Mohammed , She wandered in some health centers and she sow enough disease to write about. We face a lot of pathogens either bacteria or viruses or any pathogens so the immune system has many various roles and everybody have different ability to resist. Which is applied by the immune system, if immune system is weak our body will be exposed to many disease if untreated may cause complication and may lead to death.
The goal of this book is awareness it achieves several objectives and contains series simplified information to the reader. Dina trained on a journey all the disease starting with normal structure and function of the affected organ towards the most common pathogens affecting it. Come with me let’s stay together on a journey filled with fun and intensive information without that pressure in our brain to keep the hars
*Kidney Disorder:
The Kidney are tow organs located in your midsection on the sides of spine in the middle of your back and they are been shaped organs and it have several essential regulatory roles in vertebrates.
*Why the kidneys are is so important?
All people in medicine or not they know that the major function of kidney is removal waste product and excess fluid from the body through the urine. The production of urine involves highly complex steps of excretion and reabsorption. So… This process is necessary to maintain stable balance of body chemical and electrolyte such as sodium and potassium as the say (D\Amel Altaher) in one of lectures, also acid content is pre formed by the kidney.
The kidney produces hormones that affect the other organs for example hormones to regulate high blood pressure and control calcium metabolism.
The stricture of the kidney:
[1] Renal hilus: the renal hilus is a denation center of the kidney, through this area; the ureter leaves the kidney and in the other the blood vessels and lymphatic system and nerve enter/ leave this area.
[2] Renal capsule: the renal capsule is smooth transparent, fibrous membrane that surround encloses to protect the kidney, each kidney has it is own renal capsule (outer layer) whish help to maintain shape of kidney and protecting it from damage, also the capsule surround of mass of fatty tissue that also help to protect the kidney damage sudden movement or any critical accident.
[3] Renal cortex: this part located above the kidneys small parts like a cortex fat produce different hormones such as: responsible hormones of afraid 0 and anxiety.
[4] Renal medulla: medulla means “inner portion” this area is striated – red brown color.
[5] Renal pyramids: There are approx 5-18 striated triangular structure called “renal pyramids” within renal medulla of each kidney.
[6] Renal pelvis: the renal is the funnel shaped basin (cavity) that receivers the urine drained from the kidney nephrons via the collecting duct and then the larger papillary duct.
[7] Renal artery: the renal artery delivers oxygenated blood to the kidney.
[8] Renal vein: the renal vein is receiving deoxygenated blood.
[9] Inter lobular vein: the interlobular artery delivers oxygenated blood at high pressure to the glomeruler capillary.
[10] Inter lobular vein: the interlobular vein receives deoxygenated (at low pressure) that drain away for the glomerular filtration units and from lobes and henle.
[11] Kidney nephron: are functional units of the kidney, there are an approximately million nephron within each kidney.
The collecting duct labeled in the diagram is part of the kidney nephron.
The distal convoluted tubules of many nephron empty in to sing collection duct from collecting duct unite to drain urine excoriated be the kidney in to papillary duct, in to a minor calyx, then the major cylix [at the center of the kidney] and finally in to the ureter through which the urine leaves the kidney through to the urinary bladder.
Who do they kidney function?
Each kidney contains functioning unit called nephron as the previously mentioned. Nephron consist of filtering unit of tiny blood vessels called glomerulus attached to tubule, when blood enter the glomerulus the filtered fluid then passes along the tubule chemical and water are ether added to remove from filtered fluid according to the body needs, the final product being the urine excreted
Causes of kidney problems:
In most cases kidney problem and kidney failure is caused by other health problems that have done permanent damage [harm] to your kidney little by little.
When your kidneys are damage they may not work as well as they should, if the damage to your kidneys became less and less able to do their job you have chronic kidney disease
Kidney failure is the last stage of chronic kidney disease, this is why kidney failure is also called end stage renal disease, or (ESRD) for short.
Signs and symptoms of kidney problems:
• Blood in the urine
• High blood pressure
• Frequent urges to urinate
• Difficulty begging urination
• Painful urination
• Swallowing in hands or foot due to accumulation of fluid in body
• Nausea and vomiting
• Abdominal pain and fever
Those symptoms suggest that your kidneys aren’t working properly. However kidney function tests can help to determine kidney problems.
Causes of chronic kidney disease:
Loss of kidney ability to do their function gradually or abnormality of maker such as: portion in the urine and having decreased kidney function for there are many causes of chronic kidney disease, also the kidney may be affected by chronic disease such as diabetes mellitus (DM) or hypertension (HTN).
In some cases kidney problem may be inherited (run in family) or other congenital it means the individual may born with an abnormality that can affect their kidneys. The following are some of most common type and causes of kidney damage:
Diabetes :
Diabetes is major risk factors of kidney disease. Also diabetes affects many other parts in the body such as eye.
High blood pressure :
We know also called hypertension, another common cause of kidney disease and anther disease such as heart disease, heart attack and stroke…So when the force of blood against the artery wall increase.
Anyway if the high blood pressure is controlled the risk of complication such as chronic kidney disease is decreased.
Anyway, the kidneys produce hormones that regulate blood pressure. Whole previous kidney responds by activating Rennin – angiotensin or aldosterone system whish physiolate food retention and leads to hypertension.
Glomerulonephritis :
Are diseases that cause inflammation in the kidneys it occurs in the -tiny filtering unit as the previously mentioned? Glomerulonephritis may happen suddenly Only for example after strep throat and individual any get well again, and in the another hand the disease may develop slowly over several years and it may cause progressive less of kidney function, also congenital disorder play role in kidney problems(2-3).
Polycystic kidney disease :
Is a genetic disease in which the kidney became filled with cysts or fluid filled sacs. PKD cysts’ can greatly enlarge the kidney while replacing much of their normal structure, resulting chronic kidney disease {CKD} which causes reduced kidney function over the time, PKD may lead to kidney failure described as-end stage renal disease or (ESRD) when treatment called dialysis(2-4).
Autosomal recessive PKD (ARPKD) :
This Used to be call infantile PKD, then symptoms manifest in infancy.
(ARPKD) happen when in some inherited mutation in both copies of PKHD1 gene which case of fibrocystin protein co localize with polycystin2,also may involved in regulation pathway in the calcium signaling described with (ADPKD).
Anyway, ARPKD have similar mechanisms as ADPKD. In any case of ARPKD this cysts formation can be lead to renal failure even before birth you want to ask me why ??!
Ok… less fetal urine and oligohydromnios Lead to develop physical abnormality such as clubbed feet and flattened nose. Also lead to pulmonary hypoplasia because the ammonia fluids help the lungs to expend and develop normally…So…this problem can lead to respiratory insufficiency.Anyway Atuosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease is often fatal after birth.
So….. what is treatment :
The treatment of PKD is usually to treated specific symptoms such as:
Hypertension medication like angiotensin enzymes inhibiter or angiotensin receptor bkockers.In cases of kidney failure the main treatment is dialysis and transplant sometimes needed .
Kidney stones :
It is considered one of diseases in our community, when a patient has difficulty to urinating and severs pain during urination.Stone form when the urine has high concentration or high level of salt and mineral. Stones are one of cases of kidney failure.
Sing and symptoms of disease:
The main sign and symptoms of kidney stone is flank pain in the sides of mid back, the pain is intense and may come suddenly, sweating, nausea and vomiting are common, hematurea may or may not advisable in the urine.
However patient with kidney stones cannot fine a comfortable position and often writhes with pain(2-5).
Treatment of kidney stones :
Treatment of kidney stones depend on the patient condition which include: radiation therapy and surgical treatment may be applied depending of the size of stones.
Sometimes medication and diet help to prevent recurrent kidney stones formation and in cases where the stones are too large medication break them in to small pieces that can pass out of the body in urine.
Anyway when diagnosed with kidney stones the doctor may prescribes some pain killer medication and also anti inflammatory medication.
In my point of view in spite of presence of drugs the primary role in healing is on the patient, patient with kidney stones should drink plenty of oral fluid, because it helps stone to pass out the body in urine and also prevent urine concentration that leads to stones formation.
Water,,,water,,,water,,,water,,,water,,,water,,,water,,water,,, Is life…
Urinary tract infection:
Urinary tract infection occur when grams inter the urinary tract cause symptoms such as pain and burning during urination and more frequent need to urinate, this infection most often affect the bladder , but they sometimes spread to the kidneys and they may cause fever and pain in your back.
However UTI is a disease if untreated can lead to kidney problems.
How is chronic kidney disease detection?
Early diagnoses of the kidney disease and it is treatment, protects you from the risk of kidney failure, or kidney damage.Some simple test can be done to detect early kidney disease.
– GFR or glomerular filtration rate
– Urea
– Albumin
– Creatinine rate
– Kidney biopsy
Warning signs of kidney disease:
Kidney disease usually affect both kidney leading to decrease kidney ability to filter the blood,,, so that waste and excess fluid may build in the body….oh this is very dangerous. So therefore I recommended “prevention is better than pound of cure”.
Sometimes regular the presence of kidney disease symptoms still doesn’t appear. However the following is some warning signs of kidney disease:
i. Blood in urine
ii. Painful urination
iii. Swallowing in the hand and foot due to build up the fluid in the body.
iv. High blood pressure.
Kidney failure and treated:
Kidney failure is last stage chronic kidney disease and treated by dialysis or transplantation, also dialysis have tow kind:
1. Hemodialysis: when the doctor use machines and medication to do their function.
The mechanism of this kind depending of take blood from person and clean blood with special kind of filter called (hemodialyser) and put it back in the person. When the blood cleaned from water, salts, wastes are taken out it, this must be done 2-4 every weak and usually 3 times and it take 2-4 hours to do it (2-6), (2-7), (2-8).
Peritoneal dialysis: It applies when doctor put tube in the person abdomen. The mechanism of this way depending of fill of abdomen fluid, the extra salt, waste and water that body does not need, comes out.
…BUT…
Dialysis in general picture are not perfect, they do some of work, but as good as areal kidney (2-8).
Transplant :
Abettor way to do the kidneys work is to give person another person kidney, this called kidney transplant.
Kidney transplant is most common type of organ but why?…we have tow kidney but only need one kidney to alive ,people how are healing alive can donate a kidney to another person.
Even transplanted kidneys are not the same as kidneys people were person who gets kidney transplant must take medicine to stop their body from attacking the new kidney. Some times after years the transplanted kidney stops working but according to patient economic status patient can get new transplant.
This book about common diseases currently in our society prepared by Dina Omer Khalid Mohammed , She wandered in some health centers and she sow enough disease to write about. We face a lot of pathogens either bacteria or viruses or any pathogens so the immune system has many various roles and everybody have different ability to resist. Which is applied by the immune system, if immune system is weak our body will be exposed to many disease if untreated may cause complication and may lead to death.
The goal of this book is awareness it achieves several objectives and contains series simplified information to the reader. Dina trained on a journey all the disease starting with normal structure and function of the affected organ towards the most common pathogens affecting it. Come with me let’s stay together on a journey filled with fun and intensive information without that pressure in our brain to keep the hars

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