The mining industry of Sudan was mostly driven by extraction fuel minerals, with petroleum accounting for a substantial contribution to the country’s economy, until the autonomous region of Southern Sudan became an independent country in July 2011. Gold, iron ore, and base metals are mined in the Hassai Gold Mine. Chromite is another important mineral extracted from the Ingessana Hills. Other minerals extracted are gypsum, salt, and cement. Phosphate is found in Mount Kuoun and Mount Lauro in eastern Nuba. Reserves of zinc, lead, aluminium, cobalt, nickel in the form of block sulfides, and uranium are also established. Large reserves of iron ore have been established.
Graphite has been located in the Blue Nile. Asbestos ore reserves in Inqasna have been assessed at 6,650 million tons, and asbestos fibers in the Gouge Zone Bees Reserve have the potential of 53,500 million tons, of which some has been mined.
Tungsten reserves were assessed by the Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières in 1981 in the Mount Ayub Ali area. The estimate of crude oil reserves was approximately 531,000 tons. Gypsum has been identified in the Beraat region and in Mount Sagomhas, which has an estimated reserve of 34 million tons in the sea and 124 million tons at a depth of 50 metres (160 ft).
Many gold extraction projects are expected to move to the production stage. However, constraints identified for such development are the large royalty fees, carriage costs, and governmental economic restrictions. Chromite mining is subject to demand in the world stainless steel sector.
Sudan has the eighth-highest Gross Domestic Product (GDP) at Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) among African countries (167.42 million International dollars). The top 10 African countries by GDP (PPP) are: Africa, Nigeria, Egypt, South Africa, Algeria, Morocco, Angola, Sudan, Ethiopia, Tanzania.
Natural resources – Petroleum is Sudan’s major natural resource. The country also has significant deposits of chromium ore, copper, iron ore, mica, silver, gold, tungsten, and zinc. The Nile is the dominant geographic feature of Sudan, flowing 3,000 kilometers from Uganda in the south to Egypt in the no.
Sudan is aiming to raise its production of gold to 110 tons in 2018 to become the ninth biggest producer in the world and the second biggest in Africa, according to Asharq Al-Awsat.
China is the world’s largest producer of gold, at 450 tons per year.
The Sudanese Ministry of Minerals, through its supervisory and technical arm (the Sudanese Mineral Resources Company), said in a statement that its production of gold amounted to 103 tons up until last December, and that this figure was equal to 107% of this year’s production target.
The company also said that total revenues amounted to SDG1.9 billion ($0.27 million).
Sudan has seen significant activity in the extraction and exploration of gold during the past five years, and more than 450 local and international companies operate in this field.
The Ministry of Minerals plans to regulate the traditional mining market and establish about 40 gold-trading markets. It announced that it plans to set up an international gold stock exchange to curb smuggling of the precious metal. Sudan exports only one quarter of the gold that it produces while the rest is smuggled.
It is expected that the new stock exchange will help to stop these illegal practices.
the former Minister of Minerals Hashim Ali Salem said earliers that Sudan had only consumed one percent of its reserves of gold and other minerals, which is estimated at 500 tons of gold and 1.5 billion tons of iron, in addition to precious and rare stones.
The minister also revealed a plan to nationalize the production of 18 minerals including salt, mica, white sand and marble.