Why Sudan Governance did not stabilize in the equilibrium power if Democratic Civilian Government since its Independence on January 1956; why it did not utilize its huge natural resources in Agriculture by cultivating its 175 million arable acres and stopping at cultivating only 44 acres till now of which 4 million irrigated and 40 million rainfed; why it did not fully consume its 18.5 billion cubic meters of its annual Nile Water quota granted by the 1959 Nile Water between Egypt and Sudan. Annual water usage till now is hardly 10 billion cubic meters whereas Egypt is consuming its 55.5 billion meters plus the surplus of Sudan quota and raising concern and objections on the construction of (GERD) – Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam. Why all big agricultural schemes collapsed e.g. Gezira Cotton Scheme, Nuba Mountains, Tokar etc. Why transport sector failed by the total collapse of Sudan Airways (the first in Africa, established in 1947,) Sudan Railways, Sudan Shipping Line, River Transport to the South etc., why the poverty line went up to 60% (20% in 1969); finally why all services dramatically deteriorated e.g. schools, universities, hospitals, clean water, power and cities transport.
Analysis to answer the questions:
The number of political parties increased from only 4 after independence in 1956 (the two sectarian religious parties Umma of Mahdi and People’s Party of Khatmiya plus the Communist Party and the National Unionist Party of the elites and educated class) Grew to 100 party today of which 10 are branches of the Global Muslim Brotherhood Movement, Umma Party and Democratic Unionist Party disintegrated in 12 parties together with tribal and geographical parties in the West especially Darfur. Most of those parties were formed or disintegrated do not have ideologies, thoughts or written manifestoes. Due to this fact the three democratic Governments (1956-1958, 1965-1969 and 1986-1989) failed to govern and develop the economy which in turn led to three coups (1958, 1969 and 1989), The period of democratic rule contributed only 11 years out of 64 years after independence i.e. only 17%. 83% were military rules.
All developments were achieved during the military rule e.g. Roseires Dam, Sudan Airways, Sudan Line, Railways rehabilitation, Managil Cotton Scheme, Textile, oil mills, Sugar factories and food processing done in the 6 years of the first military rule. Army building, Airforce Navy, Dams, roads, new sugar factories, oil mills, etc., done by the 3 military regimes.
On the other side, all of the inherited development projects collapsed in the last 30 years of the Islamic Salvation Regime, e.g. Gezira Cotton Scheme, Nuba Mountain Cotton Scheme, Onion Drying Scheme in East of Sudan. Transport sector complete failure by the collapse of Sudan Airways, Sudan Line, Railways, and River Transport. Services sector deteriorated in Education, health care, clear water, power and city transport. Most of the basic services went to the private sector in schools, universities and hospitals. The Salvation regime succeeded in 1999 in exploring and drilling, treating and export of oil which reached one time 500 thousand barrels per day. In calculated plans the Salvation pushed the S. Sudan leaders to go for secession on July 2011. With the secession 75% of the oil exports lost. Since then the economy of Sudan dwindled at enormous rate till it was about to reach the collapse point in 2028 when the youth revolution was ignited by the unprecedented hardships of unemployment, price hikes of commodities, lack of social and political freedoms.
The cost of reaching Peace Agreement is high. Wars of the three areas – Darfur, S. Kordofan and Blue Nile since 2003 consumed and is consuming 67% of the annual budget since then. All governments since 1958 failed to reach a sustainable peace in Sudan. All regimes resorted to military options.
The nascent Transitional Government is facing great difficulties to reach a comprehensive, inclusive and Peace Agreement. All insurgent factions are targeting power sharing neglecting the agony, hardship and suffering of their people who were forced to leave these areas and lost almost everything becoming completely dependent on aids of the Global Humanitarian Organizations.
3. External affair policies
All previous regimes military or civilian, except Abboud regime (1958-1964) failed to maintain a sustainable foreign policies by setting a system which keeps Sudan active and positive right in the middle of the Non-Alignment Movement founded in 1956,
1. Sudan Governance is a democratic system cannot be achieved before the amalgamation of the numerous parties with three big parties or block-Leftist, Islamic and independents.
2. To adopt an economic model which suits Sudan diversity; the best is the controlled market economy.
3. Toi be politically active in the Non-Alignment Movement by initiating the revival of the Organization.
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